 Sexagesimal (angles or time) to decimal
Astronomical Formulas: Sunrise, Sunset, and Twilight
The conversion function is given by  where

a = integral number of degrees or hours
b = integral number of arc minutes or minutes of time
c = integral number of arc seconds or seconds of time
Introduction
This document calculates, for latitudes between 65 degrees North and 65 degrees South and any date in the latter half of the 20th century, the times of sunrise, sunset , and civil, nautical, and astronomical twilight . The calculated times refer to locations with a clear horizon and a standard refraction correction for normal meteorological conditions. The calculated times are accurate to within 2 minutes; higher accuracy is seldom justified since local meteorological conditions will cause the actual time to vary.
Unit Definitions:  Twilight is caused by the scattering of sunlight by the upper layers
of the Earth's atmosphere. There are different definitions of twilight.
Astronomical twilight begins at sunset (ends at sunrise) and ends (begins) when the Sun's center is 18 degrees below the horizon. Civil twilight begins (ends) when the Sun's center is 6 degrees below the horizon; nautical twilight begins (ends)
when the Sun's center is 12 degrees below the horizon.
Decimal (angles or time) to sexagesima l

We must first define some intermediate functions: The method of the Almanac for Computers (United States Naval Observatory) is used to calculate the times. The definitions for sunrise, sunset, and twilight for an observer at sea level are given in terms of the zenith distance z (p /2 - altitude) of the center of the Sun: where d_h is the angle or time in decimal notation.
Sunrise and Sunset
90 deg 50 arc min
The conversion function is then given by
Civil Twilight
96
Nautical Twilight
102 Astronomical Twilight
108
Sunrise or Sunset is defined for a geocentric altitude of -50 arc minutes; 34 arc minutes is to correct for atmospheric refraction and 16 arc minutes is to correct for the Sun's semidiameter.
For an observer at a height h meters above sea level the following correction should be added to the zenith distances above:
2.12h1/2 arc minutes
The following formulae are used to compute the phenomena:
M = 0.985600t - 3.289 degrees
l = M + 1.916sin M + .020sin 2M + 282.634 degrees
tan a = 0.91746tan l
sin d = 0.39782sin l
x = cos H = (cos z - sin d sin f)/(cos d cos f)
T = H + a - 0.065710t - 6.622 hours
UT = T + L
where
M = Sun's mean anomaly
t = approximate time of phenomenon in days since 0 January, 0h UT
l = Sun's true longitude
a = Sun's right ascension
d = Sun's declination
H = Sun's local hour angle
T = local mean time of phenomenon
f = latitude of observer
L = longitude of observer (east is negative; west is positive) in hours
UT = Universal Time of phenomenon Method
Using the above formulae, the procedure from the Almanac for Computers is as follows:
1. Calculate an initial value for t from
t = N + (6h + L)/24
(for morning phenomenon)
t = N + (18h + L)/24
(for evening phenomenon)
where N is the day of the year.
2. Calculate M and l.
3. Solve for a, noting that a is in the same quadrant as L.
4. Solve for d.
5. Solve for H; the correct quadrant for H is given by the following rules:
rising phenomenon: H = 360 - arccos x
setting phenomenon: H = arccos x
6. Calculate T.
7. Calculate UT. To convert to the local time see the standard time conversions in Section 1.16. Enter Data
Year: Month: Day of the Month: Latitude: Longitude: Observer's height above horizon (meters): Observer's location:
MMT Observatory, Arizona Calculations
Intermediate Variables
Convert to decimal form:
The functions necessary to convert between sexagesimal and decimal form are defined past the right margin of the page.  The day of the year N:
First, calculate the Julian Date for the calendar date at 0h UT:       Then calculate the Julian Date for the calendar date on 0 January, 0h UT for the given year:           Define an initial value for t, the approximate time of the phenomena: (for morning phenomena) (for evening phenomena)
The zenith distances for the phenomena: for Sunrise or Sunset for civil twilight for nautical twilight for astronomical twilight
Calculate the Morning Phenomenon         Convert the time T to a range between 0 and 24h:  Calculate UT of the phenomenon. If UT is greater than 24h , the phenomenon occurs on the following day, Greenwich time. If UT is negative, the phenomenon occurs on the previous day, Greenwich time. Calculate Evening Phenomenon         Convert the time T to a range between 0 and 24h:  Calculate UT of the phenomenon. If UT is greater than 24h , the phenomenon occurs on the following day, Greenwich time. If UT is negative, the phenomenon occurs on the previous day, Greenwich time.  Results
The Morning Phenomena
(converting to sexagesimal notation)
Sunrise:  Civil twilight:  Nautical twilight:  Astronomical twilight:  Note: To convert to Eastern Standard Time (for example), subtract 5 hours from the above times.
The Evening Phenomena
(converting to sexagesimal notation)
Sunset:  Civil twilight:  Nautical twilight:  Astronomical twilight:  Note: To convert to Eastern Standard Time (for example), subtract 5 hours from the above times. Accuracy
In order to provide the user with an indication of the accuracy of the above method, we have calculated the times of Sunrise and Sunset for the year 1993 and compared these times with those times provided by the Astronomical Almanac. The times were calculated for a latitude of 42 degrees and at the Greenwich meridian.
The differences in Sunrise DRise = Risealmanac - Risehandbook and Sunset D Set = Setalmanac - Sethandbook in minutes for the beginning of each of the twelve months of 1993 are:  A plot of the above differences:   